Table of Contents

Javascriptconsole.log()StringsNumbersBooleanNullArithmetic OperatorsString.lengthMethodsLibrariesMath.random()Math.floor()Single Line CommentsMulti-line CommentsVariables`const` Keyword`let` KeywordUndefinedAssignment OperatorsString ConcatenationString InterpolationTemplate LiteralsConditionalsControl FlowTruthy and FalsyComparison Operators`if` Statement`if...else` Statement`else if` ClauseLogical NOT OperatorLogical AND OperatorLogical OR Operator`switch` StatementTernary OperatorFunctionsCalling FunctionsFunction Parameters`return` KeywordFunction DeclarationAnonymous FunctionsArrow FunctionsScopeBlock Scoped VariablesGlobal VariablesArraysIndexProperty `.length`Method `.push()`Method `.pop()`MutableLoops`for` loopReverse LoopLooping Through ArraysNested For LoopWhile LoopDo…While Statement`break` KeywordIteratorsFunctions Assigned to VariablesHigher-Order FunctionsCallback FunctionsArray Method `.forEach()`Array Method `.map()`Array Method `.filter()`Array Method `.reduce()`ObjectsProperties and values of a JavaScript objectRestrictions in Naming PropertiesDot Notation for Accessing Object PropertiesDelete operatorAccessing non-existent JavaScript propertiesJavaScript Objects are MutableJavaScript Object MethodsJavascript passing objects as argumentsJavaScript for...in loopthis KeywordJavascript function `this`JavaScript Arrow Function `this` ScopeJavascript getters and setters restrictedgetters and setters intercept property accessJavascript factory functionsJavaScript destructuring assignment shorthand syntaxshorthand property name syntax for object creationClassesClass Constructor`extends`Static MethodsModulesImport Javascript modules with the require functionIntermediate Javascript: Export ModuleJavascript export defaultUsing the `import` keyword in JavascriptPromisesJavaScript Promise ObjectStates of a JavaScript PromiseCreating a Javascript Promise objectExecutor function of JavaScript Promise objectsetTimeout()`.then()` method of a JavaScript Promise objectChaining multiple `.then()` methodsThe `.catch()` method for handling rejectionAvoiding nested Promise and `.then()`JavaScript `Promise.all()`Async-AwaitAsynchronous JavaScript functionJavaScript `async...await` operatorJavaScript async…await advantageAsync Function Error HandlingUsing async await syntaxResolving JavaScript PromisesRequestsAsynchronous calls with XMLHttpRequestHTTP POST requestHTTP GET requestThe query string in a URLJSON: JavaScript Object NotationXMLHttpRequest GET Request RequirementsHTTP POST request with the XMLHttpRequest API`fetch()` method`Response.ok` property fetch apiFetch API FunctionJSON Formatted response bodyfetch with `Async...Await`Wrapping up

JavaScript Cheat Sheet that you should bookmark

Jatin Sharma

Jatin SharmaFeb 01, 2022

48 min read9481 words

This is the Cheat Sheet of JavaScript. It contains explanations, code examples, basic and important operators, functions, principles, methods, and many more. It provides a good overview of the language.

Javascript

JavaScript is a programming language that powers the dynamic behavior on most websites. Alongside HTML and CSS, it is a core technology that makes the web run.

console.log()

The console.log() method is used to log or print messages to the console. It can also be used to print objects and other info.

script.js

console.log("Hi there!");
// Prints: Hi there!

Learn about console.log()

Strings

Strings are a primitive data type. They are any grouping of characters (letters, spaces, numbers, or symbols) surrounded by single quotes ' or double quotes " .

script.js

let single = "Wheres my bandit hat?";
let double = "Wheres my bandit hat?";

Learn more about String

Numbers

Numbers are a primitive data type. They include the set of all integers and floating point numbers.

script.js

let amount = 6;
let price = 4.99;

Learn more about Numbers

Boolean

Booleans are a primitive data type. They can be either true or false .

script.js

let lateToWork = true;
let isHoliday = false;

Learn more about Boolean

Null

Null is a primitive data type. It represents the intentional absence of value. In code, it is represented as null.

script.js

let x = null;

Learn more about null

Arithmetic Operators

JavaScript supports arithmetic operators for:

    • addition
    • subtraction
    • multiplication
  • / division
  • % modulo

script.js

// Addition
5 + 5;
// Subtraction
10 - 5;
// Multiplication
5 * 10;
// Division
10 / 5;
// Modulo
10 % 5;

Learn more

String.length

The .length property of a string returns the number of characters that make up the string.

script.js

let message = "good nite";
console.log(message.length);
// Prints: 9
console.log("howdy".length);
// Prints: 5

Methods

Methods return information about an object, and are called by appending an instance with a period . , the method name, and parentheses.

Libraries

Libraries contain methods that can be called by appending the library name with a period . , the method name, and a set of parentheses.

Math.random()

The Math.random() function returns a floating-point random number in the range from 0 (inclusive) up to but not including 1.

script.js

// Returns a number between 0 and 1
Math.random();

More about Math.random()

Math.floor()

The Math.floor() function returns the largest integer less than or equal to the given number.

script.js

console.log(Math.floor(5.95));
// Prints: 5

More about Math.floor()

Single Line Comments

In JavaScript, single-line comments are created with two consecutive forward slashes // .

script.js

// This line will denote a comment

Multi-line Comments

In JavaScript, multi-line comments are created by surrounding the lines with /* at the beginning and */ at the end. Comments are good ways for a variety of reasons like explaining a code block or indicating some hints, etc.

script.js

/*
The below configuration must be
changed before deployment.
*/
let baseUrl = "https://google.com/";

More about Comments

Variables

A variable is a container for data that is stored in computer memory. It is referenced by a descriptive name that a programmer can call to assign a specific value and retrieve it.

script.js

// examples of variables
let name = "Tammy";
const found = false;
var age = 3;
console.log(name, found, age);
// Tammy, false, 3

Learn more about Variables

const Keyword

A constant variable can be declared using the keyword const . It must have an assignment. Any attempt of reassigning a const variable will result in JavaScript runtime error.

script.js

const numberOfColumns = 4;
numberOfColumns = 8;
// TypeError: Assignment to constant variable.

let Keyword

let creates a local variable in JavaScript & can be reassigned. Initialization during the declaration of a let variable is optional. A let variable will contain undefined if nothing is assigned to it.

script.js

let count;
console.log(count); // Prints: undefined
count = 10;
console.log(count); // Prints: 10

Undefined

undefined is a primitive JavaScript value that represents lack of defined value. Variables that are declared but not initialize to a vale will have the value undefined.

script.js

let a;
console.log(a);
// Prints: undefined

Assignment Operators

An assignment operator assigns a value to its left operand based on the value of its right operand. Here are some of them:

  • += addition assignment
  • -= subtraction assignment
  • *= multiplication assignment
  • /= division assignment

script.js

let number = 100;
// Both statements will add 10
number = number + 10;
number += 10;
console.log(number);
// Prints: 120

String Concatenation

In JavaScript, multiple strings can be concatenated together using the + operator. In the example, multiple strings and variables containing string values have been concatenated. After execution of the code block, the displayText variable will contain the concatenated string.

script.js

let service = 'credit card';
let month = 'May 30th';
let displayText = 'Your ' + service + ' bill
is due on ' + month + '.';
console.log(displayText);
// Prints: Your credit card bill is due on May 30th.

Learn more about String Concatenation

String Interpolation

String interpolation is the process of evaluating string literals containing one or more placeholders (expressions, variables, etc). It can be performed using template literals: text ${expression} text.

script.js

let age = 7;
// String concatenation
"Tommy is " + age + " years old.";
// String interpolation
`Tommy is ${age} years old.`;

Learn more about String interpolation

Template Literals

Template literals are strings that allow embedded expressions, ${expression} . While regular strings use single ' or double " quotes, template literals use backticks instead.

script.js

let name = "Codecademy";
console.log(`Hello, ${name}`);
// Prints: Hello, Codecademy
console.log(`Billy is ${6 + 8} years old.`);
// Prints: Billy is 14 years old.

Learn more about Template Literals


Conditionals

Control Flow

Control Flow is the order in which statements are executed in a program. The default control Flow is for statements to be read and executed in order from left-to-right, top-to-bottom in a program file.

Control structures such as conditionals ( if statements and the like) alter control Flow by only executing blocks of code if certain conditions are met. These structures essentially allow a program to make decisions about which code is executed as the program runs.

More info about Control Flow

Truthy and Falsy

In JavaScript, values evaluate to true or false when evaluated as Booleans.

  • Values that evaluate to true are known as truthy
  • Values that evaluate to false are known as falsy

Falsy values include false , 0 , empty strings, null, undefined , and NaN. All other values are truthy

Learn about Truthy and Falsy

Comparison Operators

Comparison operators are used to comparing two values and return true or false depending on the validity of the comparison:

Symbol Name
=== Strict Equal
!== Strict Not Equal
== Loosed Equal
> Greater than
>= Greater than or Equal
< Less than
<= Less than or Equal

script.js

1 > 3; // false
3 > 1; // true
250 >= 250; // true
1 === 1; // true
1 === 2; // false
1 === "1"; // false
1 == "1"; // true

More about comparision operators

if Statement

An if statement accepts an expression with a set of parentheses:

  • If the expression evaluates to a truthy value, then the code within its code body executes.
  • If the expression evaluates to a falsy value, its code body will not execute.

script.js

const isMailSent = true;
 
if (isMailSent) {
  console.log("Mail sent to recipient");
}

if...else Statement

An else block can be added to an if block or series of if-else if blocks. The else block will be executed only if the if condition fails.

script.js

const isTaskCompleted = false;
 
if (isTaskCompleted) {
  console.log("Task completed");
} else {
  console.log("Task incomplete");
}

else if Clause

After an initial if block, else if blocks can each check an additional condition. An optional else block can be added after the else if block(s) to run by default if none of the conditionals evaluated to truthy.

script.js

const size = 10;
 
if (size > 100) {
  console.log("Big");
} else if (size > 20) {
  console.log("Medium");
} else if (size > 4) {
  console.log("Small");
} else {
  console.log("Tiny");
}
// Print: Small

More about control flow statements

Logical NOT Operator

The logical NOT operator ! can be used to do one of the following:

  • Invert a Boolean value.
  • Invert the truthiness of non-Boolean values.

script.js

let lateToWork = true;
let oppositeValue = !lateToWork;
 
console.log(oppositeValue);
// Prints: false

More about Logical NOT

Logical AND Operator

The logical AND operator && checks two values and returns a boolean. If both values are truthy, then it returns true . If one, or both, of the values is falsy, then it returns false.

| A | B | A && B | | :---: | :---: | :----: | | false | false | false | | false | true | false | | true | false | false | | true | true | true |

script.js

true && true; // true
1 > 2 && 2 > 1; // false
true && false; // false
4 === 4 && 3 > 1; // true

Learn more about Logical AND

Logical OR Operator

The logical OR operator || checks two values and returns a boolean. If one or both values are truthy, it returns true . If both values are falsy, it returns false .

| A | B | A ll B | | :---: | :---: | :----: | | false | false | false | | false | true | true | | true | false | true | | true | true | true |

script.js

true || false; // true
10 > 5 || 10 > 20; // true
false || false; // false
10 > 100 || 10 > 20; // false

Learn more about Logical OR

switch Statement

The switch statements provide a means of checking an expression against multiple case clauses. If a case matches, the code inside that clause is executed. The case clause should finish with a break keyword. If no case matches but a default clause is included, the code inside default will be executed.

Note: If break is omitted from the block of a case , the switch statement will continue to check against case values until a break is encountered.

script.js

const food = "salad";
 
switch (food) {
  case "oyster":
    console.log("The taste of the sea 🦪");
    break;
  case "pizza":
    console.log("A delicious pie 🍕");
    break;
  default:
    console.log("Enjoy your meal");
}
// Prints: Enjoy your meal

Learn more about switch statement

Ternary Operator

The ternary operator allows for a compact syntax in the case of binary (choosing between two choices) decisions. It accepts a condition followed by a ? operator, and then two expressions separated by a : . If the condition evaluates to truthy, the first expression is executed, otherwise, the second expression is executed.

script.js

let price = 10.5;
let day = "Monday";
 
day === "Monday" ? (price -= 1.5) : (price += 1.5);
 
// Price will be 9

Learn more about Ternary Operator


Functions

Functions are one of the fundamental building blocks in JavaScript. A function is a reusable set of statements to perform a task or calculate a value. Functions can be passed one or more values and can return a value at the end of their execution. In order to use a function, you must define it somewhere in the scope where you wish to call it.

The example code provided contains a function that takes in 2 values and returns the sum of those.

script.js

// Defining the function:
function sum(num1, num2) {
  return num1 + num2;
}
// Calling the function:
sum(3, 6); // 9

More about Functions

Calling Functions

Functions can be called, or executed, elsewhere in code using parentheses following the function name. When a function is called, the code inside its function body runs. Arguments are values passed into a function when it is called.

script.js

// Defining the function
function sum(num1, num2) {
  return num1 + num2;
}
// Calling the function
sum(2, 4); // 6

Function Parameters

Inputs to functions are known as parameters when a function is declared or defined. Parameters are used as variables inside the function body. When the function is called, these parameters will have the values of whatever is passed in as arguments. It is possible to define a function without parameters.

script.js

// The parameter is name
function sayHello(name) {
  return `Hello, ${name}!`;
}
 
// function without parameter
function sayHello() {
  return `Hello, World!`;
}

More about Parameters

return Keyword

Functions return (pass back) values using the return keyword. return ends function execution and returns the specified value to the location where it was called. A common mistake is to forget the return keyword in which case the function will return undefined by default.

script.js

// With return
function sum(num1, num2) {
  return num1 + num2;
}
// Without return, so the function doesn't output the sum
function sum(num1, num2) {
  num1 + num2;
}

More about return

Function Declaration

Function declarations are used to create named functions. These functions can be called using their declared name. Function declarations are built from:

  • The function keyword.
  • The function name.
  • An optional list of parameters separated by commas enclosed by a set of parentheses () .
  • A function body enclosed in a set of curly braces {}

script.js

function add(num1, num2) {
  return num1 + num2;
}

More about Function Declaration

Anonymous Functions

Anonymous functions in JavaScript do not have a name property. They can be defined using the function keyword, or as an arrow function. See the code example for the difference between a named function and an anonymous function.

script.js

// Named function
function rocketToMars() {
  return "BOOM!";
}
// Anonymous function
const rocketToMars = function () {
  return "BOOM!";
};

Learn more about Anonymous functions

Arrow Functions

Arrow function expressions were introduced in ES6. These expressions are clean and concise. The syntax for an arrow function expression does not require the function keyword and uses a fat arrow => to separate the parameter(s) from the body. There are several variations of arrow functions:

  • Arrow functions with a single parameter do not require () around the parameter list.

  • Arrow functions with a single expression can use the concise function body which returns the result of the expression without the return keyword.

script.js

// Arrow function with two arguments
const sum = (firstParam, secondParam) => {
  return firstParam + secondParam;
};
console.log(sum(2, 5)); // Prints: 7
 
// Arrow function with no arguments
const printHello = () => {
  console.log("hello");
};
printHello(); // Prints: hello
 
// Arrow functions with a single argument
const checkWeight = (weight) => {
  console.log(`Baggage weight : ${weight} kilograms.`);
};
checkWeight(25); // Prints: Baggage weight : 25 kilograms.
 
// Concise arrow functions
const multiply = (a, b) => a * b;
console.log(multiply(2, 30)); // Prints: 60

Learn more about the arrow functions


Scope

Scope is a concept that refers to where values and functions can be accessed. Various scopes include:

  • Global scope (a value/function in the global scope can be used anywhere in the entire program).
  • File or module scope (the value/function can only be accessed from within the file).
  • Function scope (only visible within the function).
  • Code block scope (only visible with in a {...} codeblock)

script.js

function myFunction() {
  var pizzaName = "Volvo";
  // Code here can use pizzaName
}
// Code here can't use pizzaName

Learn more about the scope

Block Scoped Variables

const and let are block scoped variables, meaning they are only accessible in their block or nested blocks. In the given code block, trying to print the statusMessage using the console.log() method will result in a ReferenceError . It is accessible only inside that if block.

script.js

const isLoggedIn = true;
 
if (isLoggedIn == true) {
  const statusMessage = "User is logged in.";
}
console.log(statusMessage);
// Uncaught ReferenceError: statusMessage is not defined

Global Variables

JavaScript variables that are declared outside of blocks or functions can exist in the global scope, which means they are accessible throughout a program. Variables declared outside of smaller block or function scopes are accessible inside those smaller scopes.

Note: It is best practice to keep global variables to a minimum.

script.js

// Variable declared globally
const color = "blue";
 
function printColor() {
  console.log(color);
}
printColor(); // Prints: blue

Arrays

Arrays are lists of ordered, stored data. They can hold items that are of any data type. Arrays are created by using square brackets, with individual elements separated by commas

script.js

// An array containing numbers
const numberArray = [0, 1, 2, 3];
 
// An array containing different data types
const mixedArray = [1, "chicken", false];

More about Arrays

Index

Array elements are arranged by index values, starting at 0 as the first element index. Elements can be accessed by their index using the array name, and the index surrounded by square brackets [].

script.js

// Accessing an array element
const myArray = [100, 200, 300];
 
console.log(myArray[0]); // 100
console.log(myArray[1]); // 200
console.log(myArray[2]); // 300

Property .length

The .length property of a JavaScript array indicates the number of elements the array contains.

script.js

const numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4];
 
numbers.length; // 4

Method .push()

The .push() method of JavaScript arrays can be used to add one or more elements to the end of an array. .push() mutates the original array returns the new length of the array.

script.js

// Adding a single element:
const cart = ["apple", "orange"];
cart.push("pear");
 
// Adding multiple elements:
const numbers = [1, 2];
numbers.push(3, 4, 5);

Method .pop()

The .pop() method removes the last element from an array and returns that element.

script.js

const ingredients = ["eggs", "flour", "chocolate"];
 
const poppedIngredient = ingredients.pop(); // ("chocolate");
 
console.log(ingredients); // ['eggs', 'flour']

Mutable

JavaScript arrays are mutable, meaning that the values they contain can be changed.

Even if they are declared using const, the contents can be manipulated by reassigning internal values or using methods like .push() and .pop() .

script.js

const names = ["Alice", "Bob"];
 
names.push("Carl");
// ['Alice', 'Bob', 'Carl']

More about Mutable


Loops

A loop is a programming tool that is used to repeat a set of instructions. Iterate is a generic term that means “to repeat” in the context of loops. A loop will continue to iterate until a specified condition, commonly known as stopping condition is met.

More about Loops

for loop

A for loop declares looping instructions, with three important pieces of information separated by semicolons ;

  • The initialization defines where to begin the loop by declaring the iterator variable.
  • The stopping condition determines when to stop looping.
  • The iteration statement updates the iterator each time the loop is completed.

script.js

for (let i = 0; i < 3; i += 1) {
  console.log(i);
}
// Output: 0, 1, 2

learn More about For loop

Reverse Loop

A for loop can iterate “in reverse” by initializing the loop variable to the starting value, testing for when the variable hits the ending value, and decrementing (subtracting from) the loop variable at each iteration.

script.js

const items = ["apricot", "banana", "cherry"];
 
for (let i = items.length - 1; i >= 0; i -= 1) {
  console.log(`${i}. ${items[i]}`);
}
 
// Prints: 2. cherry
// Prints: 1. banana
// Prints: 0. apricot

Looping Through Arrays

An array's length can be evaluated with the .length property. This is extremely helpful for looping through arrays, as the .length of the array can be used as the stopping condition in the loop.

script.js

for (let i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {
  console.log(array[i]);
}
 
// Output: Every item in the array

Nested For Loop

A nested for loop is when a for loop runs inside another for loop. The inner loop will run all its iterations for each iteration of the outer loop.

script.js

for (let outer = 0; outer < 2; outer += 1) {
  for (let inner = 0; inner < 3; inner += 1) {
    console.log(`${outer}-${inner}`);
  }
}
 
/*
Output:
0-0
0-1
0-2
1-0
1-1
1-2
*/

Learn more about Nested for loops

While Loop

The while loop creates a loop that is executed as long as a specified condition evaluates to true. The loop will continue to run until the condition evaluates to false. The condition is specified before th loop, and usually some variable is incremented or altered in the while loop body to determine when the loop should stop.

Syntax :

script.js

while (condition) {
  // code block to be executed
}

Example:

script.js

let i = 0;
 
while (i < 5) {
  console.log(i);
  i++;
}

Learn more about while loop

Do…While Statement

A do...while statement creates a loop that executes a block of code once, checks if a condition is true, and then repeats the loop as long as the condition is true. They are used when you want the code to always execute at least once. The loop ends when the condition evaluates to false.

script.js

x = 0;
i = 0;
do {
  x = x + i;
  console.log(x);
  i++;
} while (i < 5);
// Prints: 0 1 3 6 10

Learn more about do...while

break Keyword

Within a loop, the break keyword may be used to exit the loop immediately, continuing execution after the loop body.

script.js

for (let i = 0; i < 99; i += 1) {
  if (i > 5) {
    break;
  }
  console.log(i);
}
// Output: 0 1 2 3 4 5

Here, the break keyword is used to exit the loop when i is greater than 5.

Learn more about break


Iterators

Functions Assigned to Variables

In JavaScript, functions are a data type just as strings, numbers, and arrays are data types. Therefore, functions can be assigned as values to variables, but are different form all other data types because they can be invoked.

script.js

let plusFive = (number) => {
  return number + 5;
};
// f is assigned the value of plusFive
let f = plusFive;
 
plusFive(3); // 8
// Since f has a function value, it can be invoked.
 
f(9); // 14

Higher-Order Functions

In Javascript, functions can be assigned to variables in the same way that strings or arrays can. They can be passed into other functions as parameters or returned from them as well.

A “higher-order function” is a function that accepts functions as parameters and/or returns a function.

Callback Functions

In JavaScript, a callback function is a function that is passed into another function as an argument. This function can then be invoked during the execution of that higher order function (that it is an argument of).

Since, in JavaScript, functions are objects, functions can be passed as arguments.

script.js

const isEven = (n) => {
  return n % 2 == 0;
};
 
let printMsg = (evenFunc, num) => {
  const isNumEven = evenFunc(num);
  console.log(`The number ${num} is an even
number: ${isNumEven}.`);
};
 
// Pass in isEven as the callback function
printMsg(isEven, 4);
// Prints: The number 4 is an even number: True.

Learn more about Callback functions

Array Method .forEach()

The .forEach() method executes a callback function on each of the elements in an array in order. Here, the callback function containing a console.log() method will be executed 5 times, once for each element.

script.js

const numbers = [28, 77, 45, 99, 27];
 
numbers.forEach((number) => {
  console.log(number);
});

More about .forEach()

Array Method .map()

The .map() method executes a callback function on each element in an array. It returns a new array made up of the return values from the callback function.

The original array does not get altered, and the returned array may contain different elements than the original array.

script.js

const finalParticipants = ["Taylor", "Donald", "Don", "Natasha", "Bobby"];
 
const announcements = finalParticipants.map((member) => {
  return member + " joined the contest.";
});
console.log(announcements);

Learn more about .map()

Array Method .filter()

The .filter() method executes a callback function on each element in an array. The callback function for each of the elements must return either true or false. The returned array is a new array with any elements for which the callback function returns true. Here, the array filteredArray will contain all the elements of randomNumbers but 4 .

script.js

const randomNumbers = [4, 11, 42, 14, 39];
 
const filteredArray = randomNumbers.filter((n) => {
  return n > 5;
});

More about .filter()

Array Method .reduce()

The .reduce() method iterates through an array and returns a single value. It takes a callback function with two parameters (accumulator, currentValue) as arguments. On each iteration, accumulator is the value returned by the last iteration, and the currentValue is the current element. Optionally, a second argument can be passed which acts as the initial value of the accumulator. Here, the .reduce() method will sum all the elements of the array.

script.js

const arrayOfNumbers = [1, 2, 3, 4];
 
const sum = arrayOfNumbers.reduce((accumulator, currentValue) => {
  return accumulator + currentValue;
});
 
console.log(sum); // 10

More about .reduce


Objects

An object is a built-in data type for storing key-value pairs. Data inside objects are unordered, and the values can be of any type.

More about Objects

Properties and values of a JavaScript object

A JavaScript object literal is enclosed with curly braces {} . Values are mapped to keys in the object with a colon (:), and the key-value pairs are separated by commas. All the keys are unique, but values are not. Key-value pairs of an object are also referred to as properties.

script.js

const classOf2018 = {
  students: 38,
  year: 2018,
};

Restrictions in Naming Properties

JavaScript object key names must adhere to some restrictions to be valid. Key names must either be strings or valid identifier or variable names (i.e. special characters such as - are not allowed in key names that are not strings).

script.js

// Example of invalid key names
const trainSchedule = {
    platform num: 10, // Invalid because of the space between words.
    40 - 10 + 2: 30,  // Expressions cannot be keys.
    +compartment: 'C' // The use of a + sign is invalid unless it is enclosed in quotations.
}

Dot Notation for Accessing Object Properties

Properties of a JavaScript object can be accessed using the dot notation in this manner:

object.propertyName Nested properties of an object can be accessed by chaining key names in the correct order.

script.js

const apple = {
  color: "Green",
  price: {
    bulk: "$3/kg",
    smallQty: "$4/kg",
  },
};
 
console.log(apple.color); // 'Green'
console.log(apple.price.bulk); // '$3/kg'

Delete operator

Once an object is created in JavaScript, it is possible to remove properties from the object using the delete operator. The delete keyword deletes both the value of the property and the property itself from the object. The delete operator only works on properties, not on variables or functions.

script.js

const person = {
  firstName: "Matilda",
  age: 27,
  hobby: "knitting",
  goal: "learning JavaScript",
};
 
delete person.hobby; // or delete person[hobby];
 
console.log(person);
 
/*
{
  firstName: "Matilda"
  age: 27
  goal: "learning JavaScript"
}
*/

Accessing non-existent JavaScript properties

When trying to access a JavaScript object property that has not been defined yet, the value of undefined will be returned by default.

script.js

const classElection = {
  date: "January 12",
};
console.log(classElection.place); // undefined

JavaScript Objects are Mutable

JavaScript objects are mutable, meaning their contents can be changed, even when they are declared as const. New properties can be added, and existing property values can be changed or deleted. It is the reference to the object, bound to the variable, that cannot be changed.

script.js

const student = {
  name: "Sheldon",
  score: 100,
  grade: "A",
};
 
console.log(student);
// { name: 'Sheldon', score: 100, grade: 'A' }
 
delete student.score;
student.grade = "F";
console.log(student);
// { name: 'Sheldon', grade: 'F' }
 
student = {};
// TypeError: Assignment to constant variable

JavaScript Object Methods

JavaScript objects may have property values that are functions. These are referred to as object methods. Methods may be defined using anonymous functions arrow function expression, or with shorthand method syntax. Object methods are invoked with the syntax: objectName.methodName(arguments)

script.js

const engine = {
  // method shorthand, with one argument
  start(adverb) {
    console.log(`The engine starts up ${adverb}...`);
  },
  // anonymous arrow function expression with no arguments
  sputter: () => {
    console.log("The engine sputters...");
  },
};
 
engine.start("noisily");
engine.sputter();
 
/* Console output:
The engine starts up noisily...
The engine sputters...
*/

Javascript passing objects as arguments

When JavaScript objects are passed as arguments to functions or methods, they are passed by reference, not by value. This means that the object itself (not a copy) is accessible and mutable (can be changed) inside that function.

script.js

const origNum = 8;
const origObj = { color: "blue" };
 
const changeItUp = (num, obj) => {
  num = 7;
  obj.color = "red";
};
 
changeItUp(origNum, origObj);
 
// Will output 8 since integers are passed by value.
console.log(origNum);
 
// Will output 'red' since objects are passed
// by reference and are therefore mutable.
console.log(origObj.color);

JavaScript for...in loop

The JavaScript for...in loop can be used to iterate over the keys of an object. In each iteration, one of the properties from the object is assigned to the variable of that loop.

script.js

let mobile = {
  brand: "Samsung",
  model: "Galaxy Note 9",
};
 
for (let key in mobile) {
  console.log(`${key}: ${mobile[key]}`);
}

Learn more about for...in loop

this Keyword

The reserved keyword this refers to a method’s calling object, and it can be used to access properties belonging to that object.

Here, using the this keyword inside the object function to refer to the cat object and access its name property.

script.js

const cat = {
  name: "Goose",
  age: 8,
  whatName() {
    return this.name;
  },
};
console.log(cat.whatName());
// Output: Goose

What is this?

Javascript function this

Every JavaScript function or method has a this context. For a function defined inside of an object, this will refer to that object itself. For a function defined outside of an object this will refer to the global object (window in browser, global in Node.js).

script.js

const restaurant = {
  numCustomers: 45,
  seatCapacity: 100,
  availableSeats() {
    // this refers to the restaurant object
    // and it's used to access its properties
    return this.seatCapacity - this.numCustomers;
  },
};

JavaScript Arrow Function this Scope

JavaScript arrow functions do not have their own this context, but use the this of the surrounding lexical context. Thus, they are generally a poor choice for writing object methods.

Consider the example code:

  • loggerA is a property that uses arrow notation to define the function. Since data does not exist in the global context, accessing this.data returns undefined.

  • loggerB uses method syntax, Since this refers to the enclosing object, the value of the data property is accessed as expected, returning "abc".

script.js

const myObj = {
  data: "abc",
  loggerA: () => {
    console.log(this.data);
  },
  loggerB() {
    console.log(this.data);
  },
};
 
myObj.loggerA(); // undefined
myObj.loggerB(); // 'abc'

Javascript getters and setters restricted

JavaScript object properties are not private or protected. Since JavaScript objects are passed by reference, there is no way to fully prevent incorrect interactions with object properties.

One way to implement more restricted interactions with object properties is to use getter and setter methods. Typically, the internal value is stored as a property with an identifier that matches the getter and setter method names, but begins with an underscore (_)

script.js

const myCat = {
  _name: "Dottie",
  get name() {
    return this._name;
  },
  set name(newName) {
    this._name = newName;
  },
};
// Reference invokes the getter
console.log(myCat.name);
 
// Assignment invokes the setter
myCat.name = "Yankee";

getters and setters intercept property access

JavaScript getter and setter methods are helpful in part because they offer a way to intercept property access and assignment, and allow for additional actions to be performed before these changes go into effect.

script.js

const myCat = {
  _name: 'Snickers',
  get name(){
    return this._name
  },
  set name(newName){
    //Verify that newName is a non-empty
    string before setting as name property
    if (typeof newName === 'string' && newName.length > 0){
      this._name = newName;
    } else {
      console.log("ERROR: name must be a nonempty string");
    }
  }
}

Javascript factory functions

A JavaScript function that returns an object is known as a factory function. Factory functions often accept parameters in order to customize the returned object.

script.js

// A factory function that accepts 'name',
// 'age', and 'breed' parameters to return
// a customized dog object.
 
const dogFactory = (name, age, breed) => {
  return {
    name: name,
    age: age,
    breed: breed,
    bark() {
      console.log("Woof!");
    },
  };
};

Lear more about Factory functions

JavaScript destructuring assignment shorthand syntax

The JavaScript destructuring assignment is a shorthand syntax that allows object properties to be extracted into specific variable values.

It uses a pair of curly braces {} with property names on the left-hand side of an assignment to extract vales from objects. The number of variable can be less than the total properties of an object.

script.js

const rubiksCubeFacts = {
  possiblePermutations: "43,252,003,274,489,856,000",
  invented: "1974",
  largestCube: "17x17x17",
};
const { possiblePermutations, invented, largestCube } = rubiksCubeFacts;
console.log(possiblePermutations); //
("43,252,003,274,489,856,000");
console.log(invented); // '1974'
console.log(largestCube); // '17x17x17'

shorthand property name syntax for object creation

The shorthand property name syntax in JavaScript allows creating objects without explicitly specifying the property names (ie. explicitly declaring the value after the key). In this process, an object is created where the property names of that object match variables which already exist in that context. Shorthand property names populate an object with a key matching the identifier and a value matching the identifier's value.

script.js

const activity = "Surfing";
const beach = { activity };
console.log(beach); // { activity: 'Surfing' }

Classes

JavaScript supports the concept of classes as a syntax for creating objects. Classes specify the shared properties and methods that objects produced from the class will have.

When an object is created based on the class, the new object is referred to as an instance of the class. New instances are created using the new keyword.

The code sample shows a class that represents a Song. A new object called mySong is created underneath and the .play() method on the class is called. The result would be the text Song playing! printed in the console.

script.js

class Song {
  constructor() {
    this.title;
    this.author;
  }
  play() {
    console.log("Song playing!");
  }
}
 
const mySong = new Song();
mySong.play();

More about Classes

Class Constructor

Classes can have a constructor method. This is a special method that is called when the object is created (instantiated). Constructor methods are usually used to set initial values for the object.

script.js

class Song {
  play() {
    console.log("Playing!");
  }
  stop() {
    console.log("Stopping!");
  }
}

extends

JavaScript classes support the concept of inheritance — a child class can extend a parent class. This is accomplished by using the extends keyword as part of the class definition.

Child classes have access to all of the instance properties and methods of the parent class. They can add their own properties and methods in addition to those. A child class constructor calls the parent class constructor using the super() method.

script.js

// Parent class
class Media {
  constructor(info) {
    this.publishDate = info.publishDate;
    this.name = info.name;
  }
}
// Child class
class Song extends Media {
  constructor(songData) {
    super(songData);
    this.artist = songData.artist;
  }
}
const mySong = new Song({
  artist: "Queen",
  name: "Bohemian Rhapsody",
  publishDate: 1975,
});

Learn more about extends

Static Methods

Within a JavaScript class, the static keyword defines a static method for a class. Static methods are not called on individual instances of the class, but are called on the class itself. Therefore, they tend to be general (utility) methods.

script.js

class Dog {
  constructor(name) {
    this._name = name;
  }
  introduce() {
    console.log("This is " + this._name + "!");
  }
  // A static method
  static bark() {
    console.log("Woof!");
  }
}
 
const myDog = new Dog("Buster");
myDog.introduce();
 
// Calling the static method
Dog.bark();

Modules

Import Javascript modules with the require function

In Node.js, the require function can used to import code from another file into the current script.

script.js

var moduleA = require("./module-a.js");
 
// The .js extension is optional
var moduleA = require("./module-a");
// Both ways will produce the same result.
 
// Now the functionality of moduleA can be used
console.log(moduleA.someFunctionality);

Intermediate Javascript: Export Module

To make an object in our Javascript file exportable as a module in Node.js we assign the object to the exports property of module.

script.js

let Course = {};
Course.name = "Javascript Node.js";
module.exports = Course;

Javascript export default

As of ES6, the export default keywords allow for a single variable or function to be exported, then, in another script, it will be straightforward to import the default export.

After using the export default it is possible to import a variable or function without using the require() function.

script.js

// module "moduleA.js"
export default function cube(x) {
  return x * x * x;
}
// In main.js
import cube from "./moduleA.js";
// Now the `cube` function can be used
straightforwardly.console.log(cube(3)); // 27

Learn more about javascript export

Using the import keyword in Javascript

As of ES6, the import keyword can be used to import functions, objects or primitives previously exported into the current script.

There are many ways to use the import keyword, for example, you can import all the exports from a script by using the * selector as follows:

script.js

import * from 'module_name';

A single function can be imported with curly brackets as follows:

script.js

import {funcA} as name from 'module_name';

Or many functions by name:

script.js

import {funcA, funcB} as name from 'module_name';

Learn more about import


Promises

JavaScript Promise Object

A JavaScript Promise is an object that can be used to get the outcome of an asynchronous operation when that result is not instantly available.

Since JavaScript code runs in a non-blocking manner, promises become essential when we have to wait for some asynchronous operation without holding back the execution of the rest of the code.

More about Promises

States of a JavaScript Promise

A JavaScript Promise object can be in one of three states: pending , resolved , or rejected . While the value is not yet available, the Promise stays in the pending state. Afterwards, it transitions to one of the two states: resolved or rejected . A resolved promise stands for a successful completion. Due to errors, the promise may go in the rejected state.

In the given code block, if the Promise is on resolved state, the first parameter holding a callback function of the then() method will print the resolved value. Otherwise, an alert will be shown.

script.js

const promise = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  const res = true;
  // An asynchronous operation.
  if (res) {
    resolve("Resolved!");
  } else {
    reject(Error("Error"));
  }
});
 
promise.then(
  (res) => console.log(res),
  (err) => alert(err)
);

Creating a Javascript Promise object

An instance of a JavaScript Promise object is created using the new keyword.

The constructor of the Promise object takes a function, known as the executor function, as the argument. This function is responsible for resolving or rejecting the promise.

script.js

const executorFn = (resolve, reject) => {
  console.log("The executor function of the promise!");
};
 
const promise = new Promise(executorFn);

Executor function of JavaScript Promise object

A JavaScript promise’s executor function takes two functions as its arguments. The first parameter represents the function that should be called to resolve the promise and the other one is used when the promise should be rejected. A Promise object may use any oe or both of them inside its executor function.

In the given example, the promise is always resolved unconditionally by the resolve function. The rejected function could be used for a rejection.

script.js

const executorFn = (resolve, reject) => {
  resolve("Resolved!");
};
const promise = new Promise(executorFn);

setTimeout()

setTimeout() is an asynchronous JavaScript function that executes a code block or evaluates an expression through a callback function after a delay set in milliseconds.

script.js

const loginAlert = () => {
  alert("Login");
};
setTimeout(loginAlert, 6000);

Learn more about setTimeout()

.then() method of a JavaScript Promise object

The .then() method of a JavaScript Promise object can be used to get the eventual result (or error) of the asynchronous operation.

.then() accepts two function arguments. The first handler supplied to it will be called if the promise is resolved. The second one will be called if the promise is rejected.

script.js

const promise = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  setTimeout(() => {
    resolve("Result");
  }, 200);
});
 
promise.then(
  (res) => {
    console.log(res);
  },
  (err) => {
    alert(err);
  }
);

More about .then()

Chaining multiple .then() methods

The .then() method returns a Promise, even if one or both of the handler functions are absent. Because of this, multiple .then() methods can be chained together. This is known as composition.

In the code block, a couple of .then() methods are chained together. Each method deals with the resolved value of their respective promises.

script.js

const promise = new Promise((resolve) =>
  setTimeout(() => resolve("dAlan"), 100)
);
 
promise
  .then((res) => {
    return res === "Alan"
      ? Promise.resolve("Hey Alan!")
      : Promise.reject("Who are you?");
  })
  .then(
    (res) => {
      console.log(res);
    },
    (err) => {
      alert(err);
    }
  );

The .catch() method for handling rejection

The function passed as the second argument to a .then() method of a promise object is used when the promise is rejected. An alternative to this approach is to use the JavaScript .catch() method of the promise object. The information for the rejection is available to the handler supplied in the .catch() method.

script.js

const promise = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  setTimeout(() => {
    reject(Error("Promise Rejected Unconditionally."));
  }, 1000);
});
 
promise.then((res) => {
  console.log(value);
});
 
promise.catch((err) => {
  alert(err);
});

Learn more about .catch()

Avoiding nested Promise and .then()

In JavaScript, when performing multiple asynchronous operations in a sequence, promises should be composed by chaining multiple .then() methods. This is better practice than nesting.

Chaining helps streamline the development process because it makes the code more readable and easier to debug.

script.js

const promise = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  setTimeout(() => {
    resolve("*");
  }, 1000);
});
 
const twoStars = (star) => {
  return star + star;
};
 
const oneDot = (star) => {
  return star + ".";
};
 
const print = (val) => {
  console.log(val);
};
 
// Chaining them all together
promise.then(twoStars).then(oneDot).then(print);

JavaScript Promise.all()

The JavaScript Promise.all() method can be used to execute multiple promises in parallel. The function accepts an array of promises as an argument. If all of the promises in the argument are resolved, the promise returned from Promise.all() will resolve to an array containing the resolved values of all the promises in the order of the initial array. Any rejection from the list of promises will cause the greater promise to be rejected. In the code block, 3 and 2 will be printed respectively even though promise1 will be resolved after promise2 .

script.js

const promise1 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  setTimeout(() => {
    resolve(3);
  }, 300);
});
 
const promise2 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  setTimeout(() => {
    resolve(2);
  }, 200);
});
 
Promise.all([promise1, promise2]).then((res) => {
  console.log(res[0]);
  console.log(res[1]);
});

More about Promise.all()


Async-Await

The async...await syntax in ES6 offers a new way write more readable and scalable code to handle promises. It uses he same features that were already built into JavaScript.

script.js

function helloWorld() {
  return new Promise((resolve) => {
    setTimeout(() => {
      resolve("Hello World!");
    }, 2000);
  });
}
 
async function msg() {
  const msg = await helloWorld();
  console.log("Message:", msg);
}
msg(); // Message: Hello World! <-- after 2 seconds

Learn more about Async-await

Asynchronous JavaScript function

An asynchronous JavaScript function can be created with the async keyword before the function name, or before () when using the async arrow function. An async function always returns a promise.

script.js

function helloWorld() {
  return new Promise((resolve) => {
    setTimeout(() => {
      resolve("Hello World!");
    }, 2000);
  });
}
 
const msg = async function () {
  //Async Function Expression
  const msg = await helloWorld();
  console.log("Message:", msg);
};
 
const msg1 = async () => {
  //Async Arrow Function
  const msg = await helloWorld();
  console.log("Message:", msg);
};
 
msg(); // Message: Hello World! <-- after 2 seconds
msg1(); // Message: Hello World! <-- after 2 seconds

JavaScript async...await operator

The JavaScript async...await syntax in ES6 offers a new way write more readable and scalable code to handle promise. A JavaScript async function can contain statements preceded by an await operator. The operand of await is a promise. At an await expression, the execution of the async function is pause and waits for the operand promise to resolve. The await operator returns the promise's resolved value. An await operand can only be used inside an async function.

script.js

function helloWorld() {
  return new Promise((resolve) => {
    setTimeout(() => {
      resolve("Hello World!");
    }, 2000);
  });
}
 
async function msg() {
  const msg = await helloWorld();
  console.log("Message:", msg);
}
 
msg(); // Message: Hello World! <-- after 2 seconds;

Learn about async...await

JavaScript async…await advantage

The JavaScript async...await syntax allows multiple promises to be initiated and then resolved for values when required during execution of the program. As an alternate to chaining .then() functions, it offers better maintainability of the code and a close resemblance synchronous code.

Async Function Error Handling

JavaScript async functions uses try...catch statements for error handling. This method allows shared error handling for synchronous and asynchronous code.

script.js

let json = '{ "age": 30 }'; // incomplete data
try {
  let user = JSON.parse(json); // <-- no
  errors;
  alert(user.name); // no name!
} catch (e) {
  alert("Invalid JSON data!");
}

Using async await syntax

Constructing one or more promises or calls without await can allow multiple async functions to execute simultaneously. Through this approach, a program can take advantage of concurrency, and asynchronous actions can be initiated within an async function. Since using the await keyword halts the execution of an async function, each async function can be awaited once its value is required by program logic.

Resolving JavaScript Promises

When using JavaScript async...await , multiple asynchronous operations can run concurrently. If the resolved value is required for each promise initiated, Promise.all() can be used to retrieve the resolved value, avoiding unnecessary blocking.

script.js

let promise1 = Promise.resolve(5);
let promise2 = 44;
let promise3 = new Promise(function (resolve, reject) {
  setTimeout(resolve, 100, "foo");
});
 
Promise.all([promise1, promise2, promise3]).then(function (values) {
  console.log(values);
});
 
// expected output: Array [5, 44, "foo"]

Requests

Asynchronous calls with XMLHttpRequest

AJAX enables HTTP requests to be made not only during the load time of a web page but also anytime after a page initially loads. This allows adding dynamic behavior to a webpage. This is essential for giving a good user experience without reloading the webpage for transferring data to and from the web server.

The XMLHttpRequest (XHR) web API provides the ability to make the actual asynchronous request and uses AJAX to handle the data from the request.

The given code block is a basic example of how an HTTP GET request is made to the specified URL.

script.js

const xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
xhr.open("GET", "mysite.com/api/getjson");

Learn more about XMLHttpRequest

HTTP POST request

HTTP POST requests are made with the intention of sending new information to the source (server) that will receive it.

For a POST request, the new information is stored in the body of the request.

Learn more about POST

HTTP GET request

HTTP GET requests are made with the intention of retrieving information or data from a source (server) over the web.

GET requests have no body, so the information that the source requires, in order to return the proper response, must be included in the request URL path or query string.

Learn more about GET

The query string in a URL

Query strings are used to send additional information to the server during an HTTP GET request.

The query string is separated from the original URL using the question mark character ?. In a query string, there can be one or more key-value pairs joined by the equal character = . For separating multiple key-value pairs, an ampersand character & is used.

Query strings should be url-encoded in case of the presence of URL unsafe characters.

script.js

const requestUrl = "http://mysite.com/api/vendor?name=kavin&id=35412";

JSON: JavaScript Object Notation

JSON or JavaScript Object Notation is a data format suitable for transporting data to and from a server. It is essentially a slightly stricter version of a Javascript object. A JSON object should be enclosed in curly braces and may contain one or more property-value pairs. JSON names require double quotes, while standard Javascript objects do not.

script.js

const jsonObj = {
  name: "Rick",
  id: "11A",
  level: 4,
};

XMLHttpRequest GET Request Requirements

The request type, response type, request URL, and handler for the response data must be provided in order to make an HTTP GET request with the JavaScript XMLHttpRequest API.

The URL may contain additional data in the query string. For an HTTP GET request, the request type must be GET .

script.js

const req = new XMLHttpRequest();
req.responseType = "json";
req.open("GET", "/myendpoint/getdata?id=65");
req.onload = () => {
  console.log(xhr.response);
};
req.send();

HTTP POST request with the XMLHttpRequest API

To make an HTTP POST request with the JavaScript XMLHttpRequest API, a request type, response type, request URL, request body, and handler for the response data must be provided. The request body is essential because the information sent via the POST method is not visible in the URL. The request type must be POST for this case. The response type can be a variety of types including array buffer, json, etc.

script.js

const data = {
  fish: "Salmon",
  weight: "1.5 KG",
  units: 5,
};
const xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
xhr.open("POST", "/inventory/add");
xhr.responseType = "json";
xhr.send(JSON.stringify(data));
xhr.onload = () => {
  console.log(xhr.response);
};

fetch() method

A JavaScript Fetch API is used to access and manipulate requests and responses within the HTTP pipeline, fetching resources asynchronously across a network. A basic fetch(( request will accept a URL parameter, send a request and contain a success and failure promise handler function.

In the example, the block of code begins by calling the fetch() function. Then a then() method is chained to the end of the fetch() . It ends with the response callback to handle success and the rejection callback to handle failure.

script.js

fetch("url").then(
  (response) => {
    console.log(response);
  },
  (rejection) => {
    console.error(rejection.message);
  }
);

Learn more about fetch()

Response.ok property fetch api

In a Fetch API function fetch() the ok property of a response checks to see if it evaluates to true or false . In the code example the .ok property will be true when the HTTP request is successful. The .ok property will be false when the HTTP request is unsuccessful.

script.js

fetch(url, {
  method: "POST",
  headers: {
    "Content-type": "application/json",
    "api-key": apiKey,
  },
  body: data,
}).then(
  (response) => {
    if (response.ok) {
      return response.json();
    }
    throw new Error("Request failed!");
  },
  (networkError) => {
    console.log(networkError.message);
  }
);

Learn more about Response.ok

Fetch API Function

The Fetch API function fetch() can be used to create requests. Though accepting additional arguments, the request can be customized. This can be used to change the request type, headers, specify a request body, and much more as shown in the example block of code.

script.js

fetch("https://api-to-call.com/endpoint", {
  method: "POST",
  body: JSON.stringify({ id: "200" }),
})
  .then(
    (response) => {
      if (response.ok) {
        return response.json();
      }
      throw new Error("Request failed!");
    },
    (networkError) => {
      console.log(networkError.message);
    }
  )
  .then((jsonResponse) => {
    console.log(jsonResponse);
  });

[Learn more about fetch()]

JSON Formatted response body

The .json() method will resolve a returned promise to a JSON object, parsing the body text as JSON. The example block of code shows .json() method that returns a promise that resolves to a JSON-formatted response body as a JavaScript object.

script.js

fetch("url-that-returns-JSON")
  .then((response) => response.json())
  .then((jsonResponse) => {
    console.log(jsonResponse);
  });

fetch with Async...Await

The async…await syntax is used with the JS Fetch API fetch() to work with promises. In the code block example we see the keyword async placed the function. This means that the function will return a promise. The keyword await makes the JavaScript wait until the problem is resolved.

script.js

const getSuggestions = async () => {
  const wordQuery = inputField.value;
  const endpoint = `${url}${queryParams}${wordQuery}`;
  try {
    const response = await fetch(endpoint, { cache: "no-cache" });
    if (response.ok) {
      const jsonResponse = await response.json();
    }
  } catch (error) {
    console.log(error);
  }
};

Wrapping up

This cheatsheet all you need to learn or revise any concept of javascript. It is very long and I know I haven't cover everything in this such as DOM manipulation, that can be explained in the separate article. SAVE FOR LATER USE ⌛ See you.

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